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useradd.c

/*
 * Copyright 1991 - 1994, Julianne Frances Haugh
 * All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 * 3. Neither the name of Julianne F. Haugh nor the names of its contributors
 *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
 *    without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY JULIE HAUGH AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
 * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL JULIE HAUGH OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
 * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
 * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
 * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
 * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
 * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
 * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

#include <config.h>

#undef USE_PAM

#include "rcsid.h"
RCSID (PKG_VER "$Id: useradd.c 6 2005-03-20 15:34:28Z bubulle $")
#include "prototypes.h"
#include "defines.h"
#include "chkname.h"
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <pwd.h>
#include <grp.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <time.h>
#ifdef USE_PAM
#include <security/pam_appl.h>
#include <security/pam_misc.h>
#include <pwd.h>
#endif                        /* USE_PAM */
#include "pwauth.h"
#if HAVE_LASTLOG_H
#include <lastlog.h>
#else
#include "lastlog_.h"
#endif
#include "faillog.h"
#ifndef SKEL_DIR
#define SKEL_DIR "/etc/skel"
#endif
#ifndef USER_DEFAULTS_FILE
#define USER_DEFAULTS_FILE "/etc/default/useradd"
#define NEW_USER_FILE "/etc/default/nuaddXXXXXX"
#endif
/*
 * Needed for MkLinux DR1/2/2.1 - J.
 */
#ifndef LASTLOG_FILE
#define LASTLOG_FILE "/var/log/lastlog"
#endif
/*
 * These defaults are used if there is no defaults file.
 */
static gid_t def_group = 100;
static const char *def_gname = "other";
static const char *def_home = "/home";
static const char *def_shell = "";
static const char *def_template = SKEL_DIR;

#ifdef SHADOWPWD
static long def_inactive = -1;
static const char *def_expire = "";
#endif

static char def_file[] = USER_DEFAULTS_FILE;

#define     VALID(s)    (strcspn (s, ":\n") == strlen (s))

static const char *user_name = "";
static const char *user_pass = "!";
static uid_t user_id;
static gid_t user_gid;
static const char *user_comment = "";
static const char *user_home = "";
static const char *user_shell = "";

#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
static long user_expire = -1;
static int is_shadow_pwd;
#endif
#ifdef SHADOWGRP
static int is_shadow_grp;
#endif
static char **user_groups;    /* NULL-terminated list */
static long sys_ngroups;
static int do_grp_update = 0; /* group files need to be updated */

static char *Prog;

static int
 bflg = 0,  /* new default root of home directory */
 cflg = 0,  /* comment (GECOS) field for new account */
 dflg = 0,  /* home directory for new account */
 Dflg = 0,  /* set/show new user default values */
 eflg = 0,  /* days since 1970-01-01 when account is locked */
 fflg = 0,  /* days until account with expired password is locked */
 gflg = 0,  /* primary group ID for new account */
 Gflg = 0,  /* secondary group set for new account */
 kflg = 0,  /* specify a directory to fill new user directory */
 mflg = 0,  /* create user's home directory if it doesn't exist */
 nflg = 0,  /* create a group having the same name as the user */
 oflg = 0,  /* permit non-unique user ID to be specified with -u */
 sflg = 0,  /* shell program for new account */
 uflg = 0;  /* specify user ID for new account */

#ifdef AUTH_METHODS
static int Aflg = 0;          /* specify authentication method for user */
static char user_auth[1024];
static char *auth_arg;
#endif

extern char *optarg;
extern int optind;

#ifdef NDBM
extern int pw_dbm_mode;

#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
extern int sp_dbm_mode;
#endif
extern int gr_dbm_mode;

#ifdef      SHADOWGRP
extern int sg_dbm_mode;
#endif
#endif

static int home_added;

#ifdef NDBM
static int pw_dbm_added;
static int gr_dbm_added;

#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
static int sp_dbm_added;
#endif
#ifdef      SHADOWGRP
static int sg_dbm_added;
#endif
#endif                        /* NDBM */

#include "groupio.h"

#ifdef      SHADOWGRP
#include "sgroupio.h"
#endif

#include "pwio.h"

#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
#include "shadowio.h"
#endif

#include "getdef.h"

/*
 * exit status values
 */
#define E_SUCCESS 0     /* success */
#define E_PW_UPDATE     1     /* can't update password file */
#define E_USAGE         2     /* bad command syntax */
#define E_BAD_ARG 3     /* invalid argument to option */
#define E_UID_IN_USE    4     /* uid already in use (and no -o) */
#define E_NOTFOUND      6     /* specified group doesn't exist */
#define E_NAME_IN_USE   9     /* username already in use */
#define E_GRP_UPDATE    10    /* can't update group file */
#define E_HOMEDIR 12    /* can't create home directory */

#ifdef SVR4
#define DGROUP    "defgroup="
#define HOME      "defparent="
#define SHELL     "defshell="
#define INACT     "definact="
#define EXPIRE    "defexpire="
#define SKEL      "defskel="
#else
#define DGROUP    "GROUP="
#define HOME      "HOME="
#define SHELL     "SHELL="
#define INACT     "INACTIVE="
#define EXPIRE    "EXPIRE="
#define SKEL      "SKEL="
#endif

/* local function prototypes */
static void fail_exit (int);
static struct group *getgr_nam_gid (const char *);
static long get_number (const char *);
static uid_t get_uid (const char *);
static void get_defaults (void);
static void show_defaults (void);
static int set_defaults (void);
static int get_groups (char *);
static void usage (void);
static void new_pwent (struct passwd *);

#ifdef SHADOWPWD
static long scale_age (long);
static void new_spent (struct spwd *);
#endif
static void grp_update (void);
static void find_new_uid (void);

#ifdef AUTH_METHODS
static void convert_auth (char *, const char *);
static int valid_auth (const char *);
#endif
static void process_flags (int argc, char **argv);
static void close_files (void);
static void open_files (void);
static void faillog_reset (uid_t);
static void lastlog_reset (uid_t);
static void usr_update (void);
static void create_home (void);

/*
 * fail_exit - undo as much as possible
 */

static void fail_exit (int code)
{
#ifdef NDBM
      struct passwd pwent;

      if (pw_dbm_added) {
            pwent.pw_name = user_name;
            pwent.pw_uid = user_id;
            pw_dbm_remove (&pwent);
      }
      if (gr_dbm_added)
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: rebuild the group database\n"),
                   Prog);
#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
      if (sp_dbm_added)
            sp_dbm_remove (user_name);
#endif
#ifdef      SHADOWGRP
      if (sg_dbm_added)
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: rebuild the shadow group database\n"),
                   Prog);
#endif
#endif                        /* NDBM */
      if (home_added)
            rmdir (user_home);

      SYSLOG ((LOG_INFO, "failed adding user `%s', data deleted",
             user_name));
      exit (code);
}


static struct group *getgr_nam_gid (const char *name)
{
      gid_t gid;
      char *ep;

      gid = strtoul (name, &ep, 10);
      if (*name != '\0' && *ep == '\0')   /* valid numeric gid */
            return getgrgid (gid);

      return getgrnam (name);
}


static long get_number (const char *cp)
{
      long val;
      char *ep;

      val = strtol (cp, &ep, 10);
      if (*cp != '\0' && *ep == '\0')     /* valid number */
            return val;

      fprintf (stderr, _("%s: invalid numeric argument `%s'\n"), Prog,
             cp);
      exit (E_BAD_ARG);
}

static uid_t get_uid (const char *cp)
{
      uid_t val;
      char *ep;

      val = strtoul (cp, &ep, 10);
      if (*cp != '\0' && *ep == '\0')     /* valid number */
            return val;

      fprintf (stderr, _("%s: invalid numeric argument `%s'\n"), Prog,
             cp);
      exit (E_BAD_ARG);
}

#define MATCH(x,y) (strncmp((x),(y),strlen(y)) == 0)

/*
 * get_defaults - read the defaults file
 *
 *    get_defaults() reads the defaults file for this command. It sets the
 *    various values from the file, or uses built-in default values if the
 *    file does not exist.
 */

static void get_defaults (void)
{
      FILE *fp;
      char buf[1024];
      char *cp, *ep;
      const struct group *grp;

      /*
       * Open the defaults file for reading.
       */

      if (!(fp = fopen (def_file, "r")))
            return;

      /*
       * Read the file a line at a time. Only the lines that have relevant
       * values are used, everything else can be ignored.
       */

      while (fgets (buf, sizeof buf, fp)) {
            if ((cp = strrchr (buf, '\n')))
                  *cp = '\0';

            if (!(cp = strchr (buf, '=')))
                  continue;

            cp++;

            /*
             * Primary GROUP identifier
             */

            if (MATCH (buf, DGROUP)) {
                  unsigned int val = (unsigned int) strtoul (cp, &ep, 10);

                  if (*cp != '\0' && *ep == '\0') {   /* valid number */
                        def_group = val;
                        if ((grp = getgrgid (def_group))) {
                              def_gname = xstrdup (grp->gr_name);
                        } else {
                              fprintf (stderr,
                                     _("%s: unknown gid %s\n"),
                                     Prog, cp);
                        }
                  } else if ((grp = getgrnam (cp))) {
                        def_group = grp->gr_gid;
                        def_gname = xstrdup (cp);
                  } else {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _("%s: unknown group %s\n"), Prog,
                               cp);
                  }
            }

            /*
             * Default HOME filesystem
             */

            else if (MATCH (buf, HOME)) {
                  def_home = xstrdup (cp);
            }

            /*
             * Default Login Shell command
             */

            else if (MATCH (buf, SHELL)) {
                  def_shell = xstrdup (cp);
            }
#ifdef SHADOWPWD
            /*
             * Default Password Inactive value
             */

            else if (MATCH (buf, INACT)) {
                  long val = strtol (cp, &ep, 10);

                  if (*cp != '\0' && *ep == '\0')     /* valid number */
                        def_inactive = val;
                  else
                        def_inactive = -1;
            }

            /*
             * Default account expiration date
             */

            else if (MATCH (buf, EXPIRE)) {
                  def_expire = xstrdup (cp);
            }
#endif

            /*
             * Default Skeleton information
             */

            else if (MATCH (buf, SKEL)) {
                  if (*cp == '\0')
                        cp = SKEL_DIR;    /* XXX warning: const */

                  def_template = xstrdup (cp);
            }
      }
}


/*
 * show_defaults - show the contents of the defaults file
 *
 *    show_defaults() displays the values that are used from the default
 *    file and the built-in values.
 */

static void show_defaults (void)
{
#ifdef SVR4
      printf (_("group=%s,%u  basedir=%s  skel=%s\n"),
            def_gname, (unsigned int) def_group, def_home,
            def_template);

      printf (_("shell=%s  "), def_shell);
#ifdef SHADOWPWD
      printf (_("inactive=%ld  expire=%s"), def_inactive, def_expire);
#endif
      printf ("\n");
#else                   /* !SVR4 */
      printf (_("GROUP=%u\n"), (unsigned int) def_group);
      printf (_("HOME=%s\n"), def_home);
#ifdef SHADOWPWD
      printf (_("INACTIVE=%ld\n"), def_inactive);
      printf (_("EXPIRE=%s\n"), def_expire);
#endif
      printf (_("SHELL=%s\n"), def_shell);
      printf (_("SKEL=%s\n"), def_template);
#endif                        /* !SVR4 */
}

/*
 * set_defaults - write new defaults file
 *
 *    set_defaults() re-writes the defaults file using the values that
 *    are currently set. Duplicated lines are pruned, missing lines are
 *    added, and unrecognized lines are copied as is.
 */

static int set_defaults (void)
{
      FILE *ifp;
      FILE *ofp;
      char buf[1024];
      static char new_file[] = NEW_USER_FILE;
      char *cp;
      int ofd;
      int out_group = 0;
      int out_home = 0;
      int out_inactive = 0;
      int out_expire = 0;
      int out_shell = 0;
      int out_skel = 0;

#ifdef      SVR4
      int out_gname = 0;
#endif

      /*
       * Create a temporary file to copy the new output to.
       */

#ifdef HAVE_MKSTEMP
      if ((ofd = mkstemp (new_file)) == -1) {
#else
      if ((ofd = mktemp (new_file)) == -1) {
#endif
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: cannot create new defaults file\n"), Prog);
            return -1;
      }

      if (!(ofp = fdopen (ofd, "w"))) {
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: cannot open new defaults file\n"),
                   Prog);
            return -1;
      }

      /*
       * Open the existing defaults file and copy the lines to the
       * temporary file, using any new values. Each line is checked
       * to insure that it is not output more than once.
       */

      if (!(ifp = fopen (def_file, "r"))) {
            fprintf (ofp, "# useradd defaults file\n");
            goto skip;
      }

      while (fgets (buf, sizeof buf, ifp)) {
            if ((cp = strrchr (buf, '\n')))
                  *cp = '\0';

            if (!out_group && MATCH (buf, DGROUP)) {
                  fprintf (ofp, DGROUP "%u\n",
                         (unsigned int) def_group);
                  out_group++;
            }
#ifdef      SVR4
            else if (!out_gname && MATCH (buf, "defgname=")) {
                  fprintf (ofp, "defgname=%s\n", def_gname);
                  out_gname++;
            }
#endif
            else if (!out_home && MATCH (buf, HOME)) {
                  fprintf (ofp, HOME "%s\n", def_home);
                  out_home++;
#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
            } else if (!out_inactive && MATCH (buf, INACT)) {
                  fprintf (ofp, INACT "%ld\n", def_inactive);
                  out_inactive++;
            } else if (!out_expire && MATCH (buf, EXPIRE)) {
                  fprintf (ofp, EXPIRE "%s\n", def_expire);
                  out_expire++;
            }
#endif
            else if (!out_shell && MATCH (buf, SHELL)) {
                  fprintf (ofp, SHELL "%s\n", def_shell);
                  out_shell++;
            } else if (!out_skel && MATCH (buf, SKEL)) {
                  fprintf (ofp, SKEL "%s\n", def_template);
                  out_skel++;
            } else
                  fprintf (ofp, "%s\n", buf);
      }
      fclose (ifp);

      skip:
      /*
       * Check each line to insure that every line was output. This
       * causes new values to be added to a file which did not previously
       * have an entry for that value.
       */

      if (!out_group)
            fprintf (ofp, DGROUP "%u\n", (unsigned int) def_group);
      if (!out_home)
            fprintf (ofp, HOME "%s\n", def_home);
#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
      if (!out_inactive)
            fprintf (ofp, INACT "%ld\n", def_inactive);
      if (!out_expire)
            fprintf (ofp, EXPIRE "%s\n", def_expire);
#endif
      if (!out_shell)
            fprintf (ofp, SHELL "%s\n", def_shell);
      if (!out_skel)
            fprintf (ofp, SKEL "%s\n", def_template);

      /*
       * Flush and close the file. Check for errors to make certain
       * the new file is intact.
       */

      fflush (ofp);
      if (ferror (ofp) || fclose (ofp)) {
            unlink (new_file);
            return -1;
      }

      /*
       * Rename the current default file to its backup name.
       */

      snprintf (buf, sizeof buf, "%s-", def_file);
      if (rename (def_file, buf) && errno != ENOENT) {
            snprintf (buf, sizeof buf, _("%s: rename: %s"), Prog,
                    def_file);
            perror (buf);
            unlink (new_file);
            return -1;
      }

      /*
       * Rename the new default file to its correct name.
       */

      if (rename (new_file, def_file)) {
            snprintf (buf, sizeof buf, _("%s: rename: %s"), Prog,
                    new_file);
            perror (buf);
            return -1;
      }
#ifdef SHADOWPWD
      SYSLOG ((LOG_INFO,
             "defaults: group=%u, home=%s, inactive=%ld, expire=%s",
             (unsigned int) def_group, def_home, def_inactive,
             def_expire));
#else
      SYSLOG ((LOG_INFO, "defaults: group=%u, home=%s",
             (unsigned int) def_group, def_home));
#endif
      return 0;
}

/*
 * get_groups - convert a list of group names to an array of group IDs
 *
 *    get_groups() takes a comma-separated list of group names and
 *    converts it to a NULL-terminated array. Any unknown group
 *    names are reported as errors.
 */

static int get_groups (char *list)
{
      char *cp;
      const struct group *grp;
      int errors = 0;
      int ngroups = 0;

      /*
       * Initialize the list to be empty
       */

      user_groups[0] = (char *) 0;

      if (!*list)
            return 0;

      /*
       * So long as there is some data to be converted, strip off
       * each name and look it up. A mix of numerical and string
       * values for group identifiers is permitted.
       */

      do {
            /*
             * Strip off a single name from the list
             */

            if ((cp = strchr (list, ',')))
                  *cp++ = '\0';

            /*
             * Names starting with digits are treated as numerical
             * GID values, otherwise the string is looked up as is.
             */

            grp = getgr_nam_gid (list);

            /*
             * There must be a match, either by GID value or by
             * string name.
             */

            if (!grp) {
                  fprintf (stderr, _("%s: unknown group %s\n"),
                         Prog, list);
                  errors++;
            }
            list = cp;

            /*
             * If the group doesn't exist, don't dump core...
             * Instead, try the next one.  --marekm
             */
            if (!grp)
                  continue;

#ifdef      USE_NIS
            /*
             * Don't add this group if they are an NIS group. Tell
             * the user to go to the server for this group.
             */

            if (__isgrNIS ()) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _("%s: group `%s' is a NIS group.\n"),
                         Prog, grp->gr_name);
                  continue;
            }
#endif

            if (ngroups == sys_ngroups) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _
                         ("%s: too many groups specified (max %d).\n"),
                         Prog, ngroups);
                  break;
            }

            /*
             * Add the group name to the user's list of groups.
             */

            user_groups[ngroups++] = xstrdup (grp->gr_name);
      } while (list);

      user_groups[ngroups] = (char *) 0;

      /*
       * Any errors in finding group names are fatal
       */

      if (errors)
            return -1;

      return 0;
}

/*
 * usage - display usage message and exit
 */

static void usage (void)
{
      fprintf (stderr,
             _
             ("usage: %s\t[-u uid [-o]] [-g group] [-G group,...] \n"),
             Prog);
      fprintf (stderr,
             _
             ("\t\t[-d home] [-s shell] [-c comment] [-m [-k template]]\n"));
      fprintf (stderr, "\t\t");
#ifdef SHADOWPWD
      fprintf (stderr, _("[-f inactive] [-e expire ] "));
#endif
#ifdef AUTH_METHODS
      fprintf (stderr, _("[-A program] "));
#endif
      fprintf (stderr, _("[-p passwd] name\n"));

      fprintf (stderr,
             _("       %s\t-D [-g group] [-b base] [-s shell]\n"),
             Prog);
#ifdef SHADOWPWD
      fprintf (stderr, _("\t\t[-f inactive] [-e expire ]\n"));
#endif

      exit (E_USAGE);
}

/*
 * new_pwent - initialize the values in a password file entry
 *
 *    new_pwent() takes all of the values that have been entered and
 *    fills in a (struct passwd) with them.
 */

static void new_pwent (struct passwd *pwent)
{
      memzero (pwent, sizeof *pwent);
      pwent->pw_name = (char *) user_name;
#ifdef SHADOWPWD
      if (is_shadow_pwd)
            pwent->pw_passwd = (char *) SHADOW_PASSWD_STRING;
      else
#endif
            pwent->pw_passwd = (char *) user_pass;

#ifdef ATT_AGE
      pwent->pw_age = (char *) "";
#endif
      pwent->pw_uid = user_id;
      pwent->pw_gid = user_gid;
      pwent->pw_gecos = (char *) user_comment;
#ifdef      ATT_COMMENT
      pwent->pw_comment = (char *) "";
#endif
#ifdef BSD_QUOTA
      pwent->pw_quota = 0;
#endif
      pwent->pw_dir = (char *) user_home;
      pwent->pw_shell = (char *) user_shell;
}

#ifdef SHADOWPWD
static long scale_age (long x)
{
      if (x <= 0)
            return x;

      return x * (DAY / SCALE);
}

/*
 * new_spent - initialize the values in a shadow password file entry
 *
 *    new_spent() takes all of the values that have been entered and
 *    fills in a (struct spwd) with them.
 */

static void new_spent (struct spwd *spent)
{
      memzero (spent, sizeof *spent);
      spent->sp_namp = (char *) user_name;
      spent->sp_pwdp = (char *) user_pass;
      spent->sp_lstchg = time ((time_t *) 0) / SCALE;
      spent->sp_min = scale_age (getdef_num ("PASS_MIN_DAYS", -1));
      spent->sp_max = scale_age (getdef_num ("PASS_MAX_DAYS", -1));
      spent->sp_warn = scale_age (getdef_num ("PASS_WARN_AGE", -1));
      spent->sp_inact = scale_age (def_inactive);
      spent->sp_expire = scale_age (user_expire);
      spent->sp_flag = -1;
}
#endif

/*
 * grp_update - add user to secondary group set
 *
 *    grp_update() takes the secondary group set given in user_groups
 *    and adds the user to each group given by that set.
 */

static void grp_update (void)
{
      const struct group *grp;
      struct group *ngrp;

#ifdef      SHADOWGRP
      const struct sgrp *sgrp;
      struct sgrp *nsgrp;
#endif

      /*
       * Lock and open the group file. This will load all of the group
       * entries.
       */

      if (!gr_lock ()) {
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: error locking group file\n"),
                   Prog);
            fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
      }
      if (!gr_open (O_RDWR)) {
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: error opening group file\n"),
                   Prog);
            fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
      }
#ifdef      SHADOWGRP
      if (is_shadow_grp && !sgr_lock ()) {
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: error locking shadow group file\n"), Prog);
            fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
      }
      if (is_shadow_grp && !sgr_open (O_RDWR)) {
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: error opening shadow group file\n"), Prog);
            fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
      }
#endif

      /*
       * Scan through the entire group file looking for the groups that
       * the user is a member of.
       */

      for (gr_rewind (), grp = gr_next (); grp; grp = gr_next ()) {

            /*
             * See if the user specified this group as one of their
             * concurrent groups.
             */

            if (!is_on_list (user_groups, grp->gr_name))
                  continue;

            /*
             * Make a copy - gr_update() will free() everything
             * from the old entry, and we need it later.
             */

            ngrp = __gr_dup (grp);
            if (!ngrp) {
                  fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);     /* XXX */
            }

            /* 
             * Add the username to the list of group members and
             * update the group entry to reflect the change.
             */

            ngrp->gr_mem = add_list (ngrp->gr_mem, user_name);
            if (!gr_update (ngrp)) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         "%s: error adding new group entry\n",
                         Prog);
                  fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
            }
#ifdef      NDBM
            /*
             * Update the DBM group file with the new entry as well.
             */

            if (!gr_dbm_update (ngrp)) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         "%s: cannot add new dbm group entry\n",
                         Prog);
                  fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
            } else
                  gr_dbm_added++;
#endif
            SYSLOG ((LOG_INFO, "add `%s' to group `%s'",
                   user_name, ngrp->gr_name));
      }
#ifdef NDBM
      endgrent ();
#endif

#ifdef      SHADOWGRP
      if (!is_shadow_grp)
            return;

      /*
       * Scan through the entire shadow group file looking for the groups
       * that the user is a member of. The administrative list isn't
       * modified.
       */

      for (sgr_rewind (), sgrp = sgr_next (); sgrp; sgrp = sgr_next ()) {

            /*
             * See if the user specified this group as one of their
             * concurrent groups.
             */

            if (!gr_locate (sgrp->sg_name))
                  continue;

            if (!is_on_list (user_groups, sgrp->sg_name))
                  continue;

            /*
             * Make a copy - sgr_update() will free() everything
             * from the old entry, and we need it later.
             */

            nsgrp = __sgr_dup (sgrp);
            if (!nsgrp) {
                  fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);     /* XXX */
            }

            /* 
             * Add the username to the list of group members and
             * update the group entry to reflect the change.
             */

            nsgrp->sg_mem = add_list (nsgrp->sg_mem, user_name);
            if (!sgr_update (nsgrp)) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _("%s: error adding new group entry\n"),
                         Prog);
                  fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
            }
#ifdef      NDBM
            /*
             * Update the DBM group file with the new entry as well.
             */

            if (!sg_dbm_update (nsgrp)) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _("%s: cannot add new dbm group entry\n"),
                         Prog);
                  fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
            } else
                  sg_dbm_added++;
#endif                        /* NDBM */
            SYSLOG ((LOG_INFO, "add `%s' to shadow group `%s'",
                   user_name, nsgrp->sg_name));
      }
#ifdef NDBM
      endsgent ();
#endif                        /* NDBM */
#endif                        /* SHADOWGRP */
}

/*
 * find_new_uid - find the next available UID
 *
 *    find_new_uid() locates the next highest unused UID in the password
 *    file, or checks the given user ID against the existing ones for
 *    uniqueness.
 */

static void find_new_uid (void)
{
      const struct passwd *pwd;
      uid_t uid_min, uid_max;

      uid_min = getdef_unum ("UID_MIN", 100);
      uid_max = getdef_unum ("UID_MAX", 60000);

      /*
       * Start with some UID value if the user didn't provide us with
       * one already.
       */

      if (!uflg)
            user_id = uid_min;

      /*
       * Search the entire password file, either looking for this
       * UID (if the user specified one with -u) or looking for the
       * largest unused value.
       */

#ifdef NO_GETPWENT
      pw_rewind ();
      while ((pwd = pw_next ())) {
#else                   /* using getpwent() we can check against NIS users etc. */
      setpwent ();
      while ((pwd = getpwent ())) {
#endif
            if (strcmp (user_name, pwd->pw_name) == 0) {
                  fprintf (stderr, _("%s: name %s is not unique\n"),
                         Prog, user_name);
                  exit (E_NAME_IN_USE);
            }
            if (uflg && user_id == pwd->pw_uid) {
                  fprintf (stderr, _("%s: uid %u is not unique\n"),
                         Prog, (unsigned int) user_id);
                  exit (E_UID_IN_USE);
            }
            if (!uflg && pwd->pw_uid >= user_id) {
                  if (pwd->pw_uid > uid_max)
                        continue;
                  user_id = pwd->pw_uid + 1;
            }
      }
      /*
       * If a user with uid equal to UID_MAX exists, the above algorithm
       * will give us UID_MAX+1 even if not unique. Search for the first
       * free uid starting with UID_MIN (it's O(n*n) but can be avoided
       * by not having users with uid equal to UID_MAX).  --marekm
       */
      if (!uflg && user_id == uid_max + 1) {
            for (user_id = uid_min; user_id < uid_max; user_id++) {
#ifdef NO_GETPWENT
                  pw_rewind ();
                  while ((pwd = pw_next ())
                         && pwd->pw_uid != user_id);
                  if (!pwd)
                        break;
#else
                  if (!getpwuid (user_id))
                        break;
#endif
            }
            if (user_id == uid_max) {
                  fprintf (stderr, _("%s: can't get unique uid\n"),
                         Prog);
                  fail_exit (E_UID_IN_USE);
            }
      }
}

#ifdef AUTH_METHODS
/*
 * convert_auth - convert the argument list to a authentication list
 */

static void convert_auth (char *auths, const char *list)
{
      char *cp, *end;
      char buf[257];

      /*
       * Copy each method. DEFAULT is replaced by an encrypted string
       * if one can be found in the current authentication list.
       */

      strcpy (buf, list);
      auths[0] = '\0';
      for (cp = buf; cp; cp = end) {
            if (auths[0])
                  strcat (auths, ";");

            if ((end = strchr (cp, ',')))
                  *end++ = '\0';

            if (strcmp (cp, "DEFAULT") == 0) {
                  strcat (auths, user_pass);
            } else {
                  strcat (auths, "@");
                  strcat (auths, cp);
            }
      }
}

/*
 * valid_auth - check authentication list for validity
 */

static int valid_auth (const char *methods)
{
      char *cp, *end;
      char buf[257];
      int default_cnt = 0;

      /*
       * Cursory checks, length and illegal characters
       */

      if ((int) strlen (methods) > 256)
            return 0;

      if (!VALID (methods))
            return 0;

      /*
       * Pick each method apart and check it.
       */

      strcpy (buf, methods);
      for (cp = buf; cp; cp = end) {
            if ((end = strchr (cp, ',')))
                  *end++ = '\0';

            if (strcmp (cp, "DEFAULT") == 0) {
                  if (default_cnt++ > 0)
                        return 0;
            }
      }
      return 1;
}
#endif                        /* AUTH_METHODS */

/*
 * process_flags - perform command line argument setting
 *
 *    process_flags() interprets the command line arguments and sets
 *    the values that the user will be created with accordingly. The
 *    values are checked for sanity.
 */

static void process_flags (int argc, char **argv)
{
      const struct group *grp;
      int anyflag = 0;
      int arg;
      char *cp;

#ifdef SHADOWPWD
#define FLAGS "A:Du:og:G:d:s:c:mk:p:f:e:b:O:M"
#else
#define FLAGS "A:Du:og:G:d:s:c:mk:p:b:O:M"
#endif
      while ((arg = getopt (argc, argv, FLAGS)) != EOF) {
#undef FLAGS
            switch (arg) {
#ifdef AUTH_METHODS
            case 'A':
                  if (!valid_auth (optarg)) {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _("%s: invalid field `%s'\n"),
                               Prog, optarg);
                        exit (E_BAD_ARG);
                  }
                  auth_arg = optarg;
                  Aflg++;
                  break;
#endif
            case 'b':
                  if (!Dflg)
                        usage ();

                  if (!VALID (optarg) || optarg[0] != '/') {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _
                               ("%s: invalid base directory `%s'\n"),
                               Prog, optarg);
                        exit (E_BAD_ARG);
                  }
                  def_home = optarg;
                  bflg++;
                  break;
            case 'c':
                  if (!VALID (optarg)) {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _("%s: invalid comment `%s'\n"),
                               Prog, optarg);
                        exit (E_BAD_ARG);
                  }
                  user_comment = optarg;
                  cflg++;
                  break;
            case 'd':
                  if (!VALID (optarg) || optarg[0] != '/') {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _
                               ("%s: invalid home directory `%s'\n"),
                               Prog, optarg);
                        exit (E_BAD_ARG);
                  }
                  user_home = optarg;
                  dflg++;
                  break;
            case 'D':
                  if (anyflag)
                        usage ();
                  Dflg++;
                  break;
#ifdef SHADOWPWD
            case 'e':
                  if (*optarg) {
                        user_expire = strtoday (optarg);
                        if (user_expire == -1) {
                              fprintf (stderr,
                                     _
                                     ("%s: invalid date `%s'\n"),
                                     Prog, optarg);
                              exit (E_BAD_ARG);
                        }
                  } else
                        user_expire = -1;

                  /*
                   * -e "" is allowed - it's a no-op without /etc/shadow
                   */
                  if (*optarg && !is_shadow_pwd) {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _
                               ("%s: shadow passwords required for -e\n"),
                               Prog);
                        exit (E_USAGE);
                  }
                  if (Dflg)
                        def_expire = optarg;
                  eflg++;
                  break;
            case 'f':
                  def_inactive = get_number (optarg);
                  /*
                   * -f -1 is allowed - it's a no-op without /etc/shadow
                   */
                  if (def_inactive != -1 && !is_shadow_pwd) {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _
                               ("%s: shadow passwords required for -f\n"),
                               Prog);
                        exit (E_USAGE);
                  }
                  fflg++;
                  break;
#endif
            case 'g':
                  grp = getgr_nam_gid (optarg);
                  if (!grp) {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _("%s: unknown group %s\n"), Prog,
                               optarg);
                        exit (E_NOTFOUND);
                  }
                  if (Dflg) {
                        def_group = grp->gr_gid;
                        def_gname = optarg;
                  } else {
                        user_gid = grp->gr_gid;
                  }
                  gflg++;
                  break;
            case 'G':
                  if (get_groups (optarg))
                        exit (E_NOTFOUND);
                  if (user_groups[0])
                        do_grp_update++;
                  Gflg++;
                  break;
            case 'k':
                  def_template = optarg;
                  kflg++;
                  break;
            case 'm':
                  mflg++;
                  break;
            case 'M':
                  /*
                   * don't create home dir - this is the default,
                   * ignored for RedHat/PLD adduser compatibility.
                   */
                  break;
            case 'o':
                  oflg++;
                  break;
            case 'O':
                  /*
                   * override login.defs defaults (-O name=value)
                   * example: -O UID_MIN=100 -O UID_MAX=499
                   * note: -O UID_MIN=10,UID_MAX=499 doesn't work yet
                   */
                  cp = strchr (optarg, '=');
                  if (!cp) {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _("%s: -O requires NAME=VALUE\n"),
                               Prog);
                        exit (E_BAD_ARG);
                  }
                  /* terminate name, point to value */
                  *cp++ = '\0';
                  if (putdef_str (optarg, cp) < 0)
                        exit (E_BAD_ARG);
                  break;
            case 'p':   /* set encrypted password */
                  if (!VALID (optarg)) {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _("%s: invalid field `%s'\n"),
                               Prog, optarg);
                        exit (E_BAD_ARG);
                  }
                  user_pass = optarg;
                  break;
            case 's':
                  if (!VALID (optarg) || (optarg[0] &&
                                    (optarg[0] != '/'
                                     && optarg[0] != '*'))) {
                        fprintf (stderr,
                               _("%s: invalid shell `%s'\n"),
                               Prog, optarg);
                        exit (E_BAD_ARG);
                  }
                  user_shell = optarg;
                  def_shell = optarg;
                  sflg++;
                  break;
            case 'u':
                  user_id = get_uid (optarg);
                  uflg++;
                  break;
            default:
                  usage ();
            }
            anyflag++;
      }

      /*
       * Certain options are only valid in combination with others.
       * Check it here so that they can be specified in any order.
       */
      if ((oflg && !uflg) || (kflg && !mflg))
            usage ();

      /*
       * Either -D or username is required. Defaults can be set with -D
       * for the -b, -e, -f, -g, -s options only.
       */
      if (Dflg) {
            if (optind != argc)
                  usage ();

            if (uflg || oflg || Gflg || dflg || cflg || mflg)
                  usage ();
      } else {
            if (optind != argc - 1)
                  usage ();

            user_name = argv[optind];
            if (!check_user_name (user_name)) {
                  fprintf (stderr, _("%s: invalid user name '%s'\n"),
                         Prog, user_name);
                  exit (E_BAD_ARG);
            }
            if (!dflg) {
                  char *uh;

                  uh = xmalloc (strlen (def_home) +
                              strlen (user_name) + 2);
                  sprintf (uh, "%s/%s", def_home, user_name);
                  user_home = uh;
            }
      }

#ifdef SHADOWPWD
      if (!eflg)
            user_expire = strtoday (def_expire);
#endif

      if (!gflg)
            user_gid = def_group;

      if (!sflg)
            user_shell = def_shell;
}

/*
 * close_files - close all of the files that were opened
 *
 *    close_files() closes all of the files that were opened for this
 *    new user. This causes any modified entries to be written out.
 */

static void close_files (void)
{
      if (!pw_close ()) {
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: cannot rewrite password file\n"),
                   Prog);
            fail_exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
      }
#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
      if (is_shadow_pwd && !spw_close ()) {
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: cannot rewrite shadow password file\n"),
                   Prog);
            fail_exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
      }
#endif
      if (do_grp_update) {
            if (!gr_close ()) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _("%s: cannot rewrite group file\n"),
                         Prog);
                  fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
            }
            gr_unlock ();
#ifdef      SHADOWGRP
            if (is_shadow_grp && !sgr_close ()) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _
                         ("%s: cannot rewrite shadow group file\n"),
                         Prog);
                  fail_exit (E_GRP_UPDATE);
            }
            if (is_shadow_grp)
                  sgr_unlock ();
#endif
      }
#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
      if (is_shadow_pwd)
            spw_unlock ();
#endif
      pw_unlock ();
}

/*
 * open_files - lock and open the password files
 *
 *    open_files() opens the two password files.
 */

static void open_files (void)
{
      if (!pw_lock ()) {
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: unable to lock password file\n"),
                   Prog);
            exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
      }
      if (!pw_open (O_RDWR)) {
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: unable to open password file\n"),
                   Prog);
            pw_unlock ();
            exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
      }
#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
      if (is_shadow_pwd && !spw_lock ()) {
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: cannot lock shadow password file\n"),
                   Prog);
            pw_unlock ();
            exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
      }
      if (is_shadow_pwd && !spw_open (O_RDWR)) {
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: cannot open shadow password file\n"),
                   Prog);
            spw_unlock ();
            pw_unlock ();
            exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
      }
#endif
}


static void faillog_reset (uid_t uid)
{
      struct faillog fl;
      int fd;

      fd = open (FAILLOG_FILE, O_RDWR);
      if (fd >= 0) {
            memzero (&fl, sizeof (fl));
            lseek (fd, (off_t) sizeof (fl) * uid, SEEK_SET);
            write (fd, &fl, sizeof (fl));
            close (fd);
      }
}

static void lastlog_reset (uid_t uid)
{
      struct lastlog ll;
      int fd;

      fd = open (LASTLOG_FILE, O_RDWR);
      if (fd >= 0) {
            memzero (&ll, sizeof (ll));
            lseek (fd, (off_t) sizeof (ll) * uid, SEEK_SET);
            write (fd, &ll, sizeof (ll));
            close (fd);
      }
}

/*
 * usr_update - create the user entries
 *
 *    usr_update() creates the password file entries for this user
 *    and will update the group entries if required.
 */

static void usr_update (void)
{
      struct passwd pwent;

#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
      struct spwd spent;
#endif

      if (!oflg)
            find_new_uid ();

#ifdef AUTH_METHODS
      if (Aflg) {
            convert_auth (user_auth, auth_arg);
            user_pass = user_auth;
      }
#endif

      /*
       * Fill in the password structure with any new fields, making
       * copies of strings.
       */

      new_pwent (&pwent);
#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
      new_spent (&spent);
#endif

      /*
       * Create a syslog entry. We need to do this now in case anything
       * happens so we know what we were trying to accomplish.
       */

#ifdef AUTH_METHODS
      SYSLOG ((LOG_INFO,
             "new user: name=%s, uid=%u, gid=%u, home=%s, shell=%s, auth=%s",
             user_name, (unsigned int) user_id, (unsigned int) user_gid, 
             user_home, user_shell, Aflg ? auth_arg : "DEFAULT"));
#else
      SYSLOG ((LOG_INFO,
             "new user: name=%s, uid=%u, gid=%u, home=%s, shell=%s",
             user_name, (unsigned int) user_id, (unsigned int) user_gid, 
             user_home, user_shell));
#endif

#ifdef AUTH_METHODS
      /*
       * Attempt to add the new user to any authentication programs
       * which have been requested. Since this is more likely to fail
       * than the update of the password file, we do this first.
       */

      if (Aflg && pw_auth (user_auth, pwent.pw_name, PW_ADD, (char *) 0)) {
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: error adding authentication method\n"),
                   Prog);
            fail_exit (E_PW_UPDATE);      /* XXX */
      }
#endif                        /* AUTH_METHODS */

      /*
       * Initialize faillog and lastlog entries for this UID in case
       * it belongs to a previously deleted user. We do it only if
       * no user with this UID exists yet (entries for shared UIDs
       * are left unchanged).  --marekm
       */

      if (!getpwuid (user_id)) {
            faillog_reset (user_id);
            lastlog_reset (user_id);
      }

      /*
       * Put the new (struct passwd) in the table.
       */

      if (!pw_update (&pwent)) {
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: error adding new password entry\n"), Prog);
            exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
      }
#ifdef NDBM
      /*
       * Update the DBM files. This creates the user before the flat
       * files are updated. This is safe before the password field is
       * either locked, or set to a valid authentication string.
       */

      if (pw_dbm_present ()) {
            if (!pw_dbm_update (&pwent)) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _
                         ("%s: error updating password dbm entry\n"),
                         Prog);
                  exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
            } else
                  pw_dbm_added = 1;
      }
      endpwent ();
#endif

#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
      /*
       * Put the new (struct spwd) in the table.
       */

      if (is_shadow_pwd && !spw_update (&spent)) {
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _("%s: error adding new shadow password entry\n"),
                   Prog);
            exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
      }
#ifdef      NDBM
      /* 
       * Update the DBM files for the shadow password. This entry is
       * output before the entry in the flat file, but this is safe as
       * the password is locked or the authentication string has the
       * proper values.
       */

      if (is_shadow_pwd && sp_dbm_present ()) {
            if (!sp_dbm_update (&spent)) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _
                         ("%s: error updating shadow passwd dbm entry\n"),
                         Prog);
                  fail_exit (E_PW_UPDATE);
            } else
                  sp_dbm_added++;
            endspent ();
      }
#endif
#endif                        /* SHADOWPWD */

      /*
       * Do any group file updates for this user.
       */

      if (do_grp_update)
            grp_update ();
}

/*
 * create_home - create the user's home directory
 *
 *    create_home() creates the user's home directory if it does not
 *    already exist. It will be created mode 755 owned by the user
 *    with the user's default group.
 */

static void create_home (void)
{
      if (access (user_home, F_OK)) {
            /* XXX - create missing parent directories.  --marekm */
            if (mkdir (user_home, 0)) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _("%s: cannot create directory %s\n"),
                         Prog, user_home);
                  fail_exit (E_HOMEDIR);
            }
            chown (user_home, user_id, user_gid);
#if 1
            chmod (user_home, 0777 & ~getdef_num ("UMASK", 077));
#else
            chmod (user_home, 0755);
#endif
            home_added++;
      }
}

#ifdef USE_PAM
static struct pam_conv conv = {
      misc_conv,
      NULL
};
#endif                        /* USE_PAM */

/*
 * main - useradd command
 */

int main (int argc, char **argv)
{
#ifdef USE_PAM
      pam_handle_t *pamh = NULL;
      struct passwd *pampw;
      int retval;
#endif
      /*
       * Get my name so that I can use it to report errors.
       */

      sys_ngroups = sysconf (_SC_NGROUPS_MAX);
      user_groups = malloc ((1 + sys_ngroups) * sizeof (char *));
      Prog = Basename (argv[0]);

      setlocale (LC_ALL, "");
      bindtextdomain (PACKAGE, LOCALEDIR);
      textdomain (PACKAGE);

#ifdef USE_PAM
      retval = PAM_SUCCESS;

      pampw = getpwuid (getuid ());
      if (pampw == NULL) {
            retval = PAM_USER_UNKNOWN;
      }

      if (retval == PAM_SUCCESS) {
            retval =
                pam_start ("useradd", pampw->pw_name, &conv, &pamh);
      }

      if (retval == PAM_SUCCESS) {
            retval = pam_authenticate (pamh, 0);
            if (retval != PAM_SUCCESS) {
                  pam_end (pamh, retval);
            }
      }

      if (retval == PAM_SUCCESS) {
            retval = pam_acct_mgmt (pamh, 0);
            if (retval != PAM_SUCCESS) {
                  pam_end (pamh, retval);
            }
      }

      if (retval != PAM_SUCCESS) {
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: PAM authentication failed\n"),
                   Prog);
            exit (1);
      }
#endif                        /* USE_PAM */

      OPENLOG (Prog);

#ifdef SHADOWPWD
      is_shadow_pwd = spw_file_present ();
#endif
#ifdef SHADOWGRP
      is_shadow_grp = sgr_file_present ();
#endif

      /*
       * The open routines for the NDBM files don't use read-write
       * as the mode, so we have to clue them in.
       */

#ifdef      NDBM
      pw_dbm_mode = O_RDWR;
#ifdef      SHADOWPWD
      sp_dbm_mode = O_RDWR;
#endif
      gr_dbm_mode = O_RDWR;
#ifdef      SHADOWGRP
      sg_dbm_mode = O_RDWR;
#endif
#endif
      get_defaults ();

      process_flags (argc, argv);

      /*
       * See if we are messing with the defaults file, or creating
       * a new user.
       */

      if (Dflg) {
            if (gflg || bflg || fflg || eflg || sflg)
                  exit (set_defaults ()? 1 : 0);

            show_defaults ();
            exit (E_SUCCESS);
      }

      /*
       * Start with a quick check to see if the user exists.
       */

      if (getpwnam (user_name)) {
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: user %s exists\n"), Prog,
                   user_name);
            exit (E_NAME_IN_USE);
      }

      /*
       * Don't blindly overwrite a group when a user is added...
       * If you already have a group username, and want to add the user
       * to that group, use useradd -g username username.
       * --bero
       */
      if (!gflg) {
            if (getgrnam (user_name)) {
                  fprintf (stderr,
                         _
                         ("%s: group %s exists - if you want to add this user to that group, use -g.\n"),
                         Prog, user_name);
                  exit (E_NAME_IN_USE);
            }
      }

      /*
       * Do the hard stuff - open the files, create the user entries,
       * create the home directory, then close and update the files.
       */

      open_files ();

      usr_update ();

      if (mflg) {
            create_home ();
            copy_tree (def_template, user_home, user_id, user_gid);
      } else if (getdef_str ("CREATE_HOME")) {
            /*
             * RedHat added the CREATE_HOME option in login.defs in their
             * version of shadow-utils (which makes -m the default, with
             * new -M option to turn it off). Unfortunately, this
             * changes the way useradd works (it can be run by scripts
             * expecting some standard behaviour), compared to other
             * Unices and other Linux distributions, and also adds a lot
             * of confusion :-(.
             * So we now recognize CREATE_HOME and give a warning here
             * (better than "configuration error ... notify administrator"
             * errors in every program that reads /etc/login.defs). -MM
             */
            fprintf (stderr,
                   _
                   ("%s: warning: CREATE_HOME not supported, please use -m instead.\n"),
                   Prog);
      }

      close_files ();

#ifdef USE_PAM
      if (retval == PAM_SUCCESS) {
            retval = pam_chauthtok (pamh, 0);
            if (retval != PAM_SUCCESS) {
                  pam_end (pamh, retval);
            }
      }

      if (retval != PAM_SUCCESS) {
            fprintf (stderr, _("%s: PAM chauthtok failed\n"), Prog);
            exit (1);
      }

      if (retval == PAM_SUCCESS)
            pam_end (pamh, PAM_SUCCESS);
#endif                        /* USE_PAM */

      exit (E_SUCCESS);
 /*NOTREACHED*/}

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